Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein – Nutrition Essentials for Nursing – Level Up RN

Hi, I'm Cathy with Level Up RN. And in this video, I am going to go into more
detail about our macronutrients. So this includes carbohydrates, lipids, and
protein. And at the end of this video, I'm going to
give you a little quiz, a little knowledge check to be sure you've been listening. And if you find value in our videos here at
Level Up RN, be sure to subscribe to our channel, and tell your classmates and friends in nursing
school about us. Alright. Let's start off talking about carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are our primary source of energy
for the body. And they control blood glucose levels as well
as insulin metabolism. You can find carbohydrates in a variety of
food sources, which include vegetables, fruits, dairy products, as well as whole grains. There are simple carbohydrates as well as
complex carbohydrates.

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Our simple carbohydrates are easy to digest,
and they provide quick energy, and they also cause your blood glucose levels to go up very
quickly. So examples of simple carbohydrates can include
fruit juice, honey, and candy. Then we have our complex carbohydrates which
provide more fiber, which we'll talk about in just a minute here. They take longer to digest and they cause
a slower increase in blood glucose levels.

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So some examples of complex carbohydrates
include apples, brown rice, and lentils. Another type of carbohydrate energy that I
want to talk about here is glycogen. Glycogen is stored carbohydrate energy in
the liver and in the muscles. And it is broken down and released in the
bloodstream when your body needs it through a process called glycogenolysis. So if you're working as a nurse on a floor
and you're working a 12-hour shift, and maybe for a big chunk of that, you're not eating
anything, when your blood glucose levels get low enough, your body will start breaking
down this glycogen to help provide glucose for your muscles, your brain, for basically
your whole body.

So again, glycogen is that stored carbohydrate
energy. Okay. So as I mentioned before, complex carbohydrates
are often richer in fiber. And fiber is so important for the body, and
it provides a number of health benefits. This includes an increase in healthy bacterial
growth in the colon. It helps to soften and bulk the stool to allow
for easier defecation. It helps to stabilize blood glucose levels. It decreases the risk for diverticulitis,
for hemorrhoids, for colorectal cancer, as well as coronary artery disease. So getting enough fiber is definitely important. Current recommendations are for 38 grams per
day for men and 25 grams per day for women. Alright, let's now talk about our next macronutrient,
which are lipids. So lipids represent the main source of stored
energy in the body, and they help provide cell structure and function. Your cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer,
so lipids are going to be a key part of that. They are also super important for temperature
regulation as well as protection for the organs.

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You can find lipids in food sources such as
fats, oil, dairy, and meat. And within lipids, we have saturated fats,
trans fats, and unsaturated fats. So saturated fats are mostly found in animal
products, such as meat or dairy. And saturated fats in general can cause an
increase in LDL levels – which we'll talk more about LDL and HDL here shortly – and
they also increase an individual's risk for heart disease.

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Trans fats are mostly found in processed foods. So if you read the ingredient label and you
see the words partially hydrogenated oil or shortening, then chances are that that product
has trans fat. Trans fats have been shown to increase levels
of LDL and to decrease HDL levels, which is the good cholesterol, which we'll talk about
in just a minute. And then we have unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats are considered our heart-healthy
fats. So they're found in foods such as avocados,
nuts, seeds, and olive oil as well as vegetable oil. So in general, the medical experts really
emphasize that we consume more of those heart-healthy unsaturated fats versus the saturated and
trans fats. Alright, let's talk a little bit more about
LDL and HDL, which are types of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance
that is produced by the liver and is also found in dietary sources, and it plays an
important role in the body. It's needed as a cell membrane component. It's also needed for vitamin D and hormone
synthesis as well as digestion. So we have our high-density lipoproteins and
our low-density lipoproteins. So our LDLs are those low-density lipoproteins.

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Those are our bad cholesterol, so L for LDL,
L for lousy. Our high-density lipoproteins, or HDL, those
are our good cholesterol, so H for HDL and H for happy. That's how I remember the difference between
those two. So in terms of the recommended intake of cholesterol
per day, in general, it's recommended that our cholesterol intake stay below 300 milligrams
per day. However, for individuals who are at high risk
for heart disease, recommendations are to keep those levels below 200 milligrams per
day. Alright, now let's talk about our third macronutrient,
which is protein. Protein is very important in the body. It's needed for tissue building and repair. So as a wound nurse, that's one of the first
questions I ask the patient, is, "How is your nutrition? How is your protein intake?" Because having sufficient protein is so important
for wound healing. Protein is also needed for immune system functioning
as well as energy. You can find protein in food sources such
as seafood, meat, poultry, eggs, soy, nuts, seeds, and dairy products. So proteins are made up of amino acids, and
there are 9 essential amino acids and 11 non-essential amino acids.

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So the 9 essential amino acids cannot be made
by the body. We have to get them from food sources. So the little Cool Chicken hint that I have
on this particular card is that it's essential to get essential amino acids from your diet. On the other hand, non-essential amino acids
can be produced by the body under normal physiologic conditions. So when it comes to eating protein, we have
complete proteins, which contain all of the 9 essential amino acids. And these complete proteins usually come from
sources such as animal sources like meat ,as well as soy. Then we have our incomplete proteins. So an incomplete protein means that this protein
source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids that we need. However, we can eat complementary proteins. So if we have this incomplete protein over
here which is lacking in 2 essential amino acids, and then we have this other incomplete
protein which is lacking in different amino acids that are essential, if we eat these
two foods together, then we get all of the essential amino acids we need.

So, for example, rice and beans. Rice and beans by themselves are incomplete
proteins, but they contain complementary protein, so if you eat those two things together, you
get all of your essential amino acids. The last thing I want to touch on in this
video is protein metabolism and the concepts of anabolism, catabolism, and nitrogen balance. So anabolism is where we are assembling amino
acids to create proteins. So we are doing protein synthesis. Catabolism is where we are breaking down proteins
for energy. And there are some great Cool Chicken hints
here to help you remember those two things on card seven. The nitrogen balance is the balance between
anabolism and catabolism. And in a healthy adult, we expect a neutral
nitrogen balance. However, there are some periods of time where
we may see a positive nitrogen balance. So a positive nitrogen balance happens when
protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown.

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This can happen during growth spurts in your
teenagers and it can happen during pregnancy. On the other hand, sometimes we see a negative
nitrogen balance. This is where protein breakdown exceeds protein
synthesis. And this can be seen in patients who are starving,
who basically are having insufficient calorie intake, and it can also be seen in patients
who have severe injuries such as burns. Okay, you guys ready for your quiz? First question. What do you called stored carbohydrate energy
in the liver and muscles?…If you said glycogen, you are correct.

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Okay. Second question. Which macro nutrient is the main source of
stored energy in the body?…All right. The answer is lipids. And then last question for you guys. What do you call the breakdown of protein
for energy?…It is catabolism. Hope you got those three questions right. If not, go back and review my video. It'll be here when you need it. And definitely take those cards on a walk
because repetition is key with this stuff. So thanks so much for watching. If you enjoyed this video, leave me a comment. And if you have any suggestions for improvement,
would love to hear those too. Take care!.

Fitnestor
Fitnestorhttps://fitnestor.com
Anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. Which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure?

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